A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Carboxylic Acids and Esters

Key Facts & Summary: Carboxylic acids are compounds containing a functional group called the carboxyl group (-COOH). The melting points and boiling points of carboxylic acids are higher than the corresponding hydrocarbons because of hydrogen bonds. Carboxylic acids are considered the most acidic organic compounds. An ester is an organic compound where the hydrogen in ...

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Carbon-carbon Bond Formation

Key Facts & Summary: Carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions are organic reactions in which a new carbon–carbon bond is formed. Electrophiles are reagents with positive charge or neutral species having a vacant orbital. Electrophiles are attracted to an electron rich centre. Nucleophile is a chemical species that has a free pair of electrons and in a reaction ...

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Rates, Equilibrium and pH

Key Facts & Summary: Reaction rate is the number of reactant particles that react to form product particles per unit of time Reaction rate is influenced mainly by temperature, concentration, particle size and the presence of a catalyst Entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system Chemical equilibrium is the condition in which ...

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Lattice Enthalpy

Key Facts & Summary: Lattice enthalpy is a measure of the strength of the forces between the ions in an ionic solid. Lattice energy is the energy required to separate 1 mol of an ionic solid into gaseous ions Lattice enthalpy increases with the charges and decreases with the size of the ions. The Born-Haber ...

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Enthalpy and Entropy

Key Facts & Summary: Enthalpy is the heat content of a system. The enthalpy change of a reaction is equivalent to the amount of energy lost or gained during the reaction. A reaction is favoured if the enthalpy of the system decreases over the reaction Entropy refers to the measure of the level of disorder ...

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