A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Reactions of Alkyl Halides

Summary Alkyl halides are organic compounds containing carbon – halogen bond. The polarizability of carbon – halogen bond greatly influences the chemical reactivity of alkyl halides. Alkyl halides undergo nucleophilic substitution reaction. Substitution reaction can follow SN1 or SN2 mechanisms.  Both mechanisms follow different conditions and offer different products. Alkyl halides also form important Grignard ...

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Reactions of Alkenes

Summary Alkenes are unsaturated organic compounds containing carbon – carbon double bonds. They are important feedstock for series of industrial chemicals specially polymers.  Simple examples are ethene and propene that are important industrial organic chemicals. The chemical activity of alkenes are mainly because of carbon – carbon double bond, Alkenes undergo addition reactions at site ...

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Reactions of Alkanes

Summary Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. Methane is a simple example of alkanes They show low chemical reactivity due to saturation compared to alkenes or alkynes. The halogenation of alkanes forms haloalkanes via free radical reaction mechanism. Halogenation reaction involves three steps, initiation, propagation & termination. Different halogens exhibit different activity for alkanes due to their ...

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Fractional distillation of crude oil

Summary Crude oil is a complex mixture of various organic compounds. Fractional distillation is the process to separate this mixture into its component parts or fractions. The organic molecules due to their different molecular structures & weights condense at different temperatures. The process is carried out in a fractionating tower which is steadily cooler towards ...

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Combustion of Alkanes

Summary Combustion is a chemical reaction that involves burning the organic compounds This chemical reaction converts organic compound into carbon dioxide and water with the release of heat energy. Heat of combustion is the amount of energy released when one mole of a substance is burned.  Combustion reaction is an important process in our daily ...

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Types of Chemical Bonds

A chemical bond is a type of attraction between atoms, molecules, or ions that is the basis for the formation of all chemical compounds.  There are 4 major types of chemical bonds which are represented below: Ionic Bond  Compounds that are composed of ions are referred to as ionic compounds, and the bond between the ...

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Ionic Equations

Ions are formed when atoms or molecules lose or gain electrons; therefore, ions have an overall positive or negative charge. If an atom or a molecule loses an electron 🡪 positively charged ion If an atom or a molecule gains an electron 🡪 negatively charged ion As we already know, solution results from a solute ...

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Empirical and Molecular Formula

To determine the formulas for different compounds, scientist did not use the periodic table, rather formulas were determined through the quantitative analysis which determines percent composition of a compound. After identification of the relative mass of each atom in a particular compound, one can determine the empirical formula of that compound. Therefore, empirical formula can ...

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The Ideal Gas Equation

The physical properties of gases are dependent upon 4 variables which are the following: Pressure – P Volume – V Temperature – T (Kelvin) Number of moles – n  Several laws describe the changes in the state of gas by defining variable or constant quantities: Boyle’s Law – variable pressure and volume; constant temperature and ...

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