A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, OCR & Edexcel. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Reaction Of Ions In Aqueous Solutions

Key Information & Summary A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid or gaseous compound called solute, giving rise to a solution. The solvation (or dissolution) in chemistry is interaction between solute and solvent that brings the single dissolved solute molecules to surround themselves with solvent molecules. If the solvent responsible for solvation ...

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Organic analysis

Key Information & Summary The first operation is the determination of the chemical-physical properties: the melting point of the solid compounds, the boiling point of the liquid compounds. The qualitative research of the elements follows, trying to discover if, in addition to carbon and hydrogen, there are other elements such as nitrogen, sulfur, halogens, etc. ...

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Optical isomerism

Key Information & Summary Two compounds with the same brute formula are called isomers. There are different types of isomers: homomers, stereoisomers, constitutional isomers. In particular a stereocenter or stereogenic center is any point in a molecule bearing groups, such that an interchanging of any two groups leads to a stereoisomer. The presence of the ...

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Polymers

Key Information & Summary Polymers are macromolecules made up of repeating units called monomers. Polymers can be synthesized through two types of polymerization reactions i.e. addition and condensation polymerization. Polymers exist as amorphous or crystalline solids. Polymers can be classified as organic, inorganic, synthetic and mixture of organic-inorganic polymers. Polymers may be classified as heteropolymer ...

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Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives

Key Information & Summary Carboxylic acids are organic compounds having hydroxyl group attached to the acyl group. Carboxylic acid derivatives contain functional groups that undergo nucleophilic acyl substitutions. Carboxylic acids, ester, amide, thioester, acyl phosphate, acyl chloride and acid anhydride are named as longest alkane name replacing its ending “e” with “oic acids”, “ate”, “amide”, ...

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Aromatic Chemistry

Key Information & Summary Aromatic compounds are unsaturated compounds having alternate double and single bonds in one or more planar rings of atoms. Benzene, a hexagon, is the simplest aromatic compound. Aromatic compounds have delocalized electrons called pi electrons that provide overall stability to these compounds. Criteria for aromaticity includes that the compound is planar, ...

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Amino Acids, Proteins and DNA

Key Information & Summary Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. Based on the chemical nature of R group, amino acids are categorized as non-polar, polar, positively and negatively charged amino acids. Amino acids exist as zwitterions and are optically active. Proteins are important biomolecules made up of amino acids linked via peptide bonds. Proteins ...

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Shapes of Molecules

Key Information & Summary The Molecular orbital theory is a technique for determining the molecular structure In molecular orbital theory, we postulate that the combination of atomic orbitals on different atoms forms molecular orbitals (MOs) These orbitals may be pure atomic orbitals or hybridized atomic orbitals of individual atoms. We then use hybridization to help ...

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