A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Electrochemistry

Introduction to Electrochemistry An important class of reactions is defined by oxidation state changes for one or more reactant elements, involving a subset of reactions that facilitate the transfer of electrons between reactant species indirectly via an external circuit rather than directly via intimate contact of redox reactants. As external circuits are involved, these reactions ...

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States of Matter

Introduction to States of Matter The quest to know the nature and functioning of matter has been the endeavour of scientists since time immemorial. Anything that takes up some space and has mass has typically been defined as matter. Accordingly, the three most common states of matter found on earth are solid, liquid, and gas. ...

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Chemical Energetics

Introduction to Chemical Energetics The exchange of energy is fundamental to all chemical changes. As the exchange of energy occurs, so does the transformation in matter, and the study of these changes forms the core of chemical energetics. The roles of systems, surroundings, the flow of heat, and the laws that govern these factors are ...

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Reactions of Alcohols

Summary Alcohols are organic compounds containing hydroxyl group attached to carbon chain. They undergo some of the most important chemical reactions.  The chemical reactivity of alcohols is related the presence of hydroxyl group.  Three reactive sites for alcohol are carbon – hydroxyl group bond (C – OH bond), oxygen – hydrogen bond (O – H ...

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Mass Number

The mass number is measured by calculating the total number of neutrons and the number of protons in an atom. Atoms Atoms are the smallest particle of an element that combine together to form molecules that form most of the objects in the universe. A particular element is formed from only one type of atom ...

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Electrochemical Cells

Electrochemical cells are devices that can produce electrical energy from chemical energy and chemical energy from electrical energy. No heat is evolved from the electrochemical cells. The two types of electrochemical cells are: Voltaic cells: The electrochemical cells that produce electrical energy with the use of chemical energy are called voltaic cells. These are also ...

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Atomic Orbital

According to atomic theory and quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical expression that presents the wave-like behaviour of 1 or 2 electrons of an atom. Unlike the fixed-orbit path of planets around the sun, electrons present in an atom don't follow a definite path. Their movement is subjected to quantum mechanics, and it ...

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Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

Introduction As we know from our daily experience, air when it flows at a certain speed and hits our body we can feel it. Winds can be felt in the form of a breeze or can take great proportions like in the case of cyclones or tornadoes. While these forms clearly give us the experience ...

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Infrared Spectroscopy

Summary Infrared spectroscopy is used to identify various functional groups present in the chemical compound. The mid infrared spectroscopy is concerned to the vibrational energy (and rotational energy) of the molecule. The region of great interest and practical use for the organic chemist is the mid infrared (4000 – 400 cm-1) that provides important information ...

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Production Of Ethanol

Summary Ethanol is an important organic compound with various lab and industrial applications. At industrial level, the production of ethanol occurs through the hydration of ethene.  Ethanol is also prepared by fermentation of starch. Due to recent usage of ethanol as fuel. Its demand is increasing globally.  Both ethene and fermentation method compete against each ...

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