A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Infra-red Spectroscopy

Summary Infrared spectroscopy is used to identify various functional groups present in the chemical compound. The mid infrared spectroscopy is concerned to the vibrational energy (and rotational energy) of the molecule. The region of great interest and practical use for the organic chemist is the mid infrared (4000 – 400 cm-1) that provides important information ...

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Production Of Ethanol

Summary Ethanol is an important organic compound with various lab and industrial applications. At industrial level, it is produced by hydration of ethene.  Ethanol is also prepared by fermentation of starch. Due to recent usage of ethanol as fuel. Its demand is increasing globally.  Both ethene and fermentation method compete against each other for cost ...

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Born-Haber Cycle

Summary The strength of an ionic bond is described by its lattice enthalpy. Lattice enthalpy explains many practical properties of ionic compounds including their solubility, hardness, and volatility. This lattice enthalpy is measured by Born-Haber Cycle. Born-Haber cycle is an application of Hess’s cycle which states that the enthalpy change in a chemical change is ...

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Collision Theory

The study of kinetics enables scientists to determine the relationship between the changes in conditions and the speed of a particular chemical reaction. One of the most important factors that affect the speed of a reaction is the reactivity of chemicals involved in that specific reaction; Furthermore, there are several variables that can also impact ...

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Le Chatelier’s Principle

Le Chatelier’s Principle is used for qualitative predictions of how a chemical system will respond to an alteration of its equilibrium conditions by means of change in temperature, pressure, or concentration of reactants and products.  The concept of this principle is closely related to the idea of chemical equilibria and equilibrium constants. Therefore, you must ...

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Dynamic Equilibrium

As you may already know, the concentration of reactants decreases while the concentration of products increases as a given reaction proceeds.  But are the changes in the concentration of reactants and products continuous? After a while, the concentrations of reactants and products no longer change, meaning that the reaction has reached the state referred to ...

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Equilibrium Constants

Chemical equilibrium is the state that indicates that the concentrations of reactants and products no longer change in a reaction. When a chemical equilibrium is a result of two active and opposing reactions, the equilibrium that is reached by the system is called a dynamic equilibrium. Dynamic equilibrium refers to the state when the changes ...

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Reactions of Alkyl Halides

Summary Alkyl halides are organic compounds containing carbon – halogen bond. The polarizability of carbon – halogen bond greatly influences the chemical reactivity of alkyl halides. Alkyl halides undergo nucleophilic substitution reaction. Substitution reaction can follow SN1 or SN2 mechanisms.  Both mechanisms follow different conditions and offer different products. Alkyl halides also form important Grignard ...

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