A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Mass Number

The mass number is measured by calculating the total number of neutrons and the number of protons in an atom. Atoms Atoms are the smallest particle of an element that combine together to form molecules that form most of the objects in the universe. A particular element is formed from only one type of atom ...

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Electrochemical Cells

Electrochemical cells are devices that can produce electrical energy from chemical energy and chemical energy from electrical energy. No heat is evolved from the electrochemical cells. The two types of electrochemical cells are: Voltaic cells: The electrochemical cells that produce electrical energy with the use of chemical energy are called voltaic cells. These are also ...

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Atomic Orbital

According to atomic theory and quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical expression that presents the wave-like behaviour of 1 or 2 electrons of an atom. Unlike the fixed-orbit path of planets around the sun, electrons present in an atom don't follow a definite path. Their movement is subjected to quantum mechanics, and it ...

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Infra-red Spectroscopy

Summary Infrared spectroscopy is used to identify various functional groups present in the chemical compound. The mid infrared spectroscopy is concerned to the vibrational energy (and rotational energy) of the molecule. The region of great interest and practical use for the organic chemist is the mid infrared (4000 – 400 cm-1) that provides important information ...

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Production Of Ethanol

Summary Ethanol is an important organic compound with various lab and industrial applications. At industrial level, it is produced by hydration of ethene.  Ethanol is also prepared by fermentation of starch. Due to recent usage of ethanol as fuel. Its demand is increasing globally.  Both ethene and fermentation method compete against each other for cost ...

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Born-Haber Cycle

Summary The strength of an ionic bond is described by its lattice enthalpy. Lattice enthalpy explains many practical properties of ionic compounds including their solubility, hardness, and volatility. This lattice enthalpy is measured by Born-Haber Cycle. Born-Haber cycle is an application of Hess’s cycle which states that the enthalpy change in a chemical change is ...

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Collision Theory

The study of kinetics enables scientists to determine the relationship between the changes in conditions and the speed of a particular chemical reaction. One of the most important factors that affect the speed of a reaction is the reactivity of chemicals involved in that specific reaction; Furthermore, there are several variables that can also impact ...

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