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A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Transition Elements

Key Facts & Summary: The transition elements are located in groups IB to VIIIB of the periodic table A transition metal is an element with a partially filled d electron sub-shell Transition metals are divided into three classes: the first, second and third series. They can form mono or polydentate ligands The largest group of ...

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Redox and Electrode Potential

Key Facts & Summary: The redox potential is used to describe a system's overall reducing or oxidizing capacity. The redox potential is measured in millivolts (mV) relative to a standard hydrogen electrode The Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) is the 0.0V thermodynamic reference point for all potential measurements at all temperatures. The potential of a half-reaction ...

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Organic Synthesis

Key Facts & Summary: Organic synthesis is the study of how synthetic chemists make, in the lab, new materials or old natural products. An organic synthesis can involve one single step or multiple steps. Multi-steps synthesis requires the chemist to accomplish more than one reaction, in order to obtain the target product. Retrosynthesis can be ...

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Carbonyl Compounds

Summary & Key Facts Carbonyl compound can be divided into aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids. Aldehydes are more susceptible to oxidation reaction than ketones. The C of the carbonyl group has a partial positive charge, while the O has a partial negative charge. Carboxylic acids are carbonyl compounds very acidic and can be amphoteric. Inorganic ...

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Aromatic Compounds

Key Summary & Facts Aromatic compounds are planar cyclic structures in which each atom of the ring is a participant in a pi bond, The pi electrons or aromatic compound delocalized around the ring Cyclic aromatic compounds undergo to electrophilic substitution reactions A compound is aromatic if they have 4n+2 delocalised electrons Benzene is highly ...

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Acids, Bases and Buffers

-Brønsted-Lowry acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors. -In water, an acid can donate a proton to form aqueous H+ and the conjugate base; a base can accept a proton from water to form OH– and the conjugate acid. -A buffer solution makes able to add a strong acid or base to a ...

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Redox Reaction

A redox is a type of chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons between two species The oxidation state of an element corresponds to the number of electrons, that an atom loses, gains in a chemical reaction The reducing agent is the reactant that is being oxidized The oxidizing agent is reactant that is ...

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Halogens

Key Facts & Summary Halogen have very high electronegativities They have seven valence electrons (one short of a stable octet) They are highly reactive, therefore toxics The halogens are Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I) and Astatine (At) Down the group, atom size increases. Halogens are a group of elements on the periodic ...

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Haloalkanes

Key Facts & Summary Halogenoalkanes are compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane have been replaced by halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine). They are also named haloalkanes or alkyl halides. They can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary halogenoalkanes based on the number of substitutions of C which ...

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Enthalpy Changes

Key Facts & Summary The enthalpy of a chemical system refers to the "heat content" of the system. Enthalpy is given the symbol H Enthalpy change refers to the amount of heat released or absorbed when a chemical reaction and it is given the symbol ΔH A reaction is exothermic when it releases energy, and ...

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