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A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Techniques of Volumetric Analysis

Volumetric analysis is a practical approach towards accurate measurement of concentration, molecular mass, purity percentage, formula of compounds, percentage composition of an element and stoichiometry of a chemical equation. It involves 3 important techniques. The first one is the use of apparatus like burette, pipette and volumetric flasks. These are specially made to offer the ...

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Shapes of Molecules and Ions

A crucial factor in understanding the chemical reactions is the knowledge of the molecular structure of the various chemical species. The geometry of the molecules decides the fate of a reaction to a large extent. Although defining the structure of a large molecule according to any fixed geometric shape is not practical, the same can ...

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Electron Configurations - Orbitals, Energy Levels and Ionisation Energy Trends

Since the very early days, chemists have tried to organise the elements so that their properties can be studied with minimum of effort. In this endeavour, Mendeleev put forward the periodic table of elements. Further development of chemistry, especially in the sphere of quantum mechanics, has enabled us to rationalise the existence of all elements ...

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Chemical Bonding

Chemical bonding deals with the study of formation of compounds out of elemental forms of atoms. Various forms of bonding may be classified into the following types. Ionic Bonding: The other name of Ionic bonding is electrovalent bonding; the molecular linkages are formed by the electrostatic attraction among oppositely charged ions. The attraction phenomenon is ...

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Energetics

The enthalpy is a thermodynamic measurement of the energy of the reaction. Simply put, potential energy is present in the chemical bonds and quantification of this energy existing within molecules, is termed as enthalpy. The three types of measurements are enthalpy of formation, sublimation and reaction. In enthalpy of reaction, the bond between atoms undergoes ...

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Kinetics

The understanding of rates of reaction is a key step towards assessment of the feasibility of a reaction. The branch of chemistry which deals with this understanding is called chemical kinetics. The rate of a chemical reaction is defined in terms of the change in concentration of a designated chemical species which is a part ...

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Amount of Substance

The universe houses all the material and chemistry is the science that evolves by experimentation and careful observation on these materials. This includes not only qualitative ideas, but also rigorous quantitative measurements. In order to understand the nature of the materials, we need to identify the units which make up those materials. In chemistry, these ...

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Isotopes and Mass Spectrometry

An atom is the smallest unit which forms the basis of innumerable chemical properties that are exhibited by an element. The scope of reactions although primarily influenced by the interaction of electrons, the number of protons differentiates an element from every other element. Neutrons, although not changing the chemical properties radically, do however play a ...

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