A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Measurement In Chemical Analysis

Measurement is involved in every aspect of experimental chemistry and the most important part of this includes the understanding of the skill of the observer and the scope of measurement of a given instrument. To identify any measurement as meaningful, we need to identify some kind of standard against which the measurement is made. Apart ...

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Techniques of Volumetric Analysis

Volumetric analysis is a practical approach towards accurate measurement of concentration, molecular mass, purity percentage, formula of compounds, percentage composition of an element and stoichiometry of a chemical equation. It involves 3 important techniques. The first one is the use of apparatus like burette, pipette and volumetric flasks. These are specially made to offer the ...

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Shapes of Molecules and Ions

A crucial factor in understanding the chemical reactions is the knowledge of the molecular structure of the various chemical species. The geometry of the molecules decides the fate of a reaction to a large extent. Although defining the structure of a large molecule according to any fixed geometric shape is not practical, the same can ...

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Oxidation Numbers, Redox and Half Equations

Chemical reactions are primarily the transfer of electrons. To understand the nature of this transfer and to identify the number of electrons taking part in this rearrangement, we need to understand the concept of oxidation states (number). Oxidation number of an atom is defined as “the charge that atom would have if the compound was composed ...

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Chemical Bonding

Chemical bonding deals with the study of formation of compounds out of elemental forms of atoms. Various forms of bonding may be classified into the following types. Ionic Bonding: The other name of Ionic bonding is electrovalent bonding; the molecular linkages are formed by the electrostatic attraction among oppositely charged ions. The attraction phenomenon is ...

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Energetics

Introduction The enthalpy is a thermodynamic measurement of the energy of the reaction. Simply put, potential energy is present in the chemical bonds and quantification of this energy existing within molecules, is termed as enthalpy. The three types of measurements are enthalpy of formation, sublimation and reaction. In enthalpy of reaction, the bond between atoms ...

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Chemical Equilibrium and Industrial Applications

Introduction Chemical equilibrium is a state in the course of a chemical reaction where the concentrations of both products and reactants reach the limit which prevents further deviation. Le-Chatelier’s principle is one of the pivotal ideas to understand the behaviour of a system in equilibrium. It states that “If a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by ...

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Kinetics

Chemical Kinetics The understanding of rates of reaction is a key step towards assessment of the feasibility of a reaction. The branch of chemistry which deals with this understanding is called chemical kinetics. The rate of a chemical reaction is defined in terms of the change in concentration of a designated chemical species which is ...

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Amount of Substance

Introduction: The universe houses all the material and chemistry is the science that evolves by experimentation and careful observation on these materials. This includes not only qualitative ideas, but also rigorous quantitative measurements. In order to understand the nature of the materials, we need to identify the units which make up those materials. In chemistry, ...

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