A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Alcohols

Key Facts & Summary Alcohols are the family of compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to a single bonded alkane. The carbon attached to OH define if an alcohol is “primary”, “secondary”, or “tertiary”. Not all functional groups containing OH are alcohols. Electron density in the O-H bond is strongly “polarized” ...

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Acids

Key Facts & Summary A Brønsted-Lowry acid is any species that is capable of donating a proton A Brønsted-Lowry base is any species that is capable of accepting a proton pH measures of the number of protons present in an aqueous solution Acids increase the concentration of hydrogen ions, while bases decrease the concentration of ...

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Overview of Acids and Bases

Acids & Bases Acids & Bases are crucial to almost all the chemistry that we know - whether industrially relevant or of academic interest. Many reactions require an acidic or a basic medium to reach the desired products. So, it's essential to know what an acid or base is. The chemical behavior of many compounds ...

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Reactions of Period 3 Elements and Their Oxides

The Third period in the periodic table presents an interesting chemistry in form of the elements and their oxides, which undergo a variety of reactions. The Period 3 of the Periodic table Table - 1 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3-12 Group 13 Group 14 Group 15 Group 16 Group 17 Group 18 Period 3 ...

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Analysis of Organic Compounds

Analysis of Organic Compounds is a practical approach towards accurate identification of formula of a compound, percentage composition of the elements present in it and the functional group(s). It involves 3 important techniques. The first one is the use of chemical tests to identify the functional groups. The second aspect is the use of high ...

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Thermodynamics - Laws, Definitions & Equations

Thermodynamics is the science that defines the relationships between heat and the other types of energy especially mechanical energy or work. The classical thermodynamics deals with macroscopic properties such as pressure, temperature, mass density, etc.; which means it doesn’t study systems at the atomic or molecular level. On the other hand, statistical thermodynamics is the ...

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Structures & reactions of organic compounds

Compounds which incorporate carbon-carbon bonds or covalent bonds of carbon with other elements like hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorous and halogens, are generally classified as organic compounds. The chemical properties of organic compounds are intricately related to their structures. Hence, the classification of organic compounds according to their structures, is an essential part of understanding ...

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Relative Atomic Mass, Relative Molecular Mass & Mass Spectrometry

Introduction An atom is too small and measurement of its mass by an instrument is not a practical solution for day-to-day science. As a result, we need to understand the mass of an atom with respect to a standard. The masses of proton, neutron and electron have been determined experimentally. Through various experiment, the isotope ...

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The mole and the Avogadro constant

The IUPAC traditionally defines mole as “SI base unit for the amount of substance (symbol: mol). The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon-12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be ...

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Atomic Symbols - The Modern Periodic Table

Every atom is made up of three crucial components – The neutral neutron, the positively charged proton and the negatively charged electron. Among these, the number of protons gives the identity to an element while the number of neutrons gives the identity to the isotopes of an element and the number of electrons gives identity ...

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