A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Basic Concept of Organic Chemistry

Key Facts & Summary Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-containing compounds. Covalent bonding is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. Lewis model are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that ...

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Atomic Structure & Isotopes

Key Facts & Summary Atoms are made of neutrons, protons and electrons. Neutrons and protons are situated in the nucleus, while the electrons orbit around the nucleus. Isotopes are versions of an element with a different number of neutrons. The number of protons for different isotopes is the same and does not change. Some isotopes ...

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Amount of Substances

Key Facts & Summary Molar Mass is the mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance and is given the unit of g mol-1 The mole is the amount of substance in grams that has the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12. One mole of a defined ...

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Key Facts & Summary Alkenes are hydrocarbons containing a carbon–carbon double bond. All the alkenes with 4 or more carbon atoms in them show structural The carbon-carbon double bond doesn't allow any rotation about it, (cis-trans isomerism). Shared electrons in the double bond are called pi electrons and they create a pi bond. The electrons ...

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Key Facts & Summary Alkanes are hydrocarbons in which all the bonds are single bonds Isomeric alkanes: the butanes. IUPAC rules assign names to unbranched alkanes. Carbon atoms are classified according to their degree of substitution by other carbons. Cycloalkanes also only contain carbon-hydrogen bonds and carbon-carbon single bonds, but the carbon atoms are joined ...

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Key Facts & Summary Alcohols are the family of compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to a single bonded alkane. The carbon attached to OH define if an alcohol is “primary”, “secondary”, or “tertiary”. Not all functional groups containing OH are alcohols. Electron density in the O-H bond is strongly “polarized” ...

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Key Facts & Summary A Brønsted-Lowry acid is any species that is capable of donating a proton A Brønsted-Lowry base is any species that is capable of accepting a proton pH measures of the number of protons present in an aqueous solution Acids increase the concentration of hydrogen ions, while bases decrease the concentration of ...

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Overview of Acids and Bases

Acids & Bases are crucial to almost all the chemistry that we know - whether industrially relevant or of academic interest. Many reactions require an acidic or a basic medium to reach the desired products. So, it's essential to know what an acid or base is. The chemical behavior of many compounds can be explained ...

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Analysis of Organic Compounds

Analysis of Organic Compounds is a practical approach towards accurate identification of formula of a compound, percentage composition of the elements present in it and the functional group(s). It involves 3 important techniques. The first one is the use of chemical tests to identify the functional groups. The second aspect is the use of high ...

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