A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Electron Structure

Key Facts & Summary Lewis structures are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons. The electronic structure is the arrangement of electrons in energy levels around an atomic nucleus The s orbital can be occupied by no more than a pair of electrons. The p orbital ...

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Chemical Equilibrium

Key Facts & Summary Chemical equilibrium is defined as the dynamic condition reached by a reversible reaction when the direct reaction and the inverse reaction occur simultaneously. A reversible reaction can proceed in both forward and backward directions. Equilibrium is reached when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. ...

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Bonds and Structures

Key Facts & Summary There are 4 main chemical bonds: ionic, covalent, polar and hydrogen bond. Electronegativity is the property of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself. An ionic bond involves a transfer of an electron between two atoms A covalent bond involves the sharing of electrons ...

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Basic Concept of Organic Chemistry

Key Facts & Summary Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-containing compounds. Covalent bonding is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. Lewis model are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that ...

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Atomic Structure & Isotopes

Key Facts & Summary Atoms are made of neutrons, protons and electrons. Neutrons and protons are situated in the nucleus, while the electrons orbit around the nucleus. Isotopes are versions of an element with a different number of neutrons. The number of protons for different isotopes is the same and does not change. Some isotopes ...

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Amount of Substances

Key Facts & Summary Molar Mass is the mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance and is given the unit of g mol-1 The mole is the amount of substance in grams that has the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12. One mole of a defined ...

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Alkenes

Key Facts & Summary Alkenes are hydrocarbons containing a carbon–carbon double bond. All the alkenes with 4 or more carbon atoms in them show structural The carbon-carbon double bond doesn't allow any rotation about it, (cis-trans isomerism). Shared electrons in the double bond are called pi electrons and they create a pi bond. The electrons ...

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Alkanes

Key Facts & Summary Alkanes are hydrocarbons in which all the bonds are single bonds Isomeric alkanes: the butanes. IUPAC rules assign names to unbranched alkanes. Carbon atoms are classified according to their degree of substitution by other carbons. Cycloalkanes also only contain carbon-hydrogen bonds and carbon-carbon single bonds, but the carbon atoms are joined ...

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Alcohols

Key Facts & Summary Alcohols are the family of compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to a single bonded alkane. The carbon attached to OH define if an alcohol is “primary”, “secondary”, or “tertiary”. Not all functional groups containing OH are alcohols. Electron density in the O-H bond is strongly “polarized” ...

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