A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, CIE, OCR, Edexcel, Eduqas & WJEC. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution

Introduction As we know from our daily experience, air when it flows at a certain speed and hits our body we can feel it. Winds can be felt in the form of a breeze or can take great proportions like in the case of cyclones or tornadoes. While these forms clearly give us the experience ...

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Infrared Spectroscopy

Summary Infrared spectroscopy is used to identify various functional groups present in the chemical compound. The mid infrared spectroscopy is concerned to the vibrational energy (and rotational energy) of the molecule. The region of great interest and practical use for the organic chemist is the mid infrared (4000 – 400 cm-1) that provides important information ...

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Production Of Ethanol

Summary Ethanol is an important organic compound with various lab and industrial applications. At industrial level, the production of ethanol occurs through the hydration of ethene.  Ethanol is also prepared by fermentation of starch. Due to recent usage of ethanol as fuel. Its demand is increasing globally.  Both ethene and fermentation method compete against each ...

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Born-Haber Cycle

Summary The strength of an ionic bond is described by its lattice enthalpy. Lattice enthalpy explains many practical properties of ionic compounds including their solubility, hardness, and volatility. This lattice enthalpy is measured by Born-Haber Cycle. Born-Haber cycle is an application of Hess’s cycle which states that the enthalpy change in a chemical change is ...

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High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)

Summary Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify an unknown organic compound. MS spectrum gives us peak mass to charge (m/z) ratio for a compound. Low resolution MS gives us m/z to a two decimal digits and may not be enough to distinguish between two molecules having same molecular mass (at two ...

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Collision Theory

The study of kinetics enables scientists to determine the relationship between the changes in conditions and the speed of a particular chemical reaction. One of the most important factors that affect the speed of a reaction is the reactivity of chemicals involved in that specific reaction. Furthermore, there are several variables that can also impact ...

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Factors Affecting the Rate of a Reaction

In every chemical reaction, the concentration of reactants (starting compounds) and those of the products (resulting compounds) change as time passes by. The measure of the change in the concentration of the reactants or products per time unit is referred to as the reaction rate for a particular chemical reaction. The reaction rate is defined as the speed with ...

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Le Chatelier’s Principle

Le Chatelier’s Principle is used for qualitative predictions of how a chemical system will respond to an alteration of its equilibrium conditions by means of change in temperature, pressure, or concentration of reactants and products.  The concept of this principle is closely related to the idea of chemical equilibria and equilibrium constants. Therefore, you must ...

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Dynamic Equilibrium

As you may already know, the concentration of reactants decreases while the concentration of products increases as a given reaction proceeds.  But are the changes in the concentration of reactants and products continuous? After a while, the concentrations of reactants and products no longer change, meaning that the reaction has reached the state referred to ...

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Equilibrium Constants

To understand what equilibrium constants are, let's start at the beginning. Chemical equilibrium is the state that indicates that the concentrations of reactants and products no longer change in a reaction. When a chemical equilibrium is a result of two active and opposing reactions, the equilibrium that is reached by the system is called a ...

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