A-Level Chemistry revision notes

A-Level (A2/AS) Chemistry revision notes providing information and assistance across all examination boards including AQA, OCR & Edexcel. Chemistry is a complicated A-Level with a lot of content and information to work through. We have put together some of the best revision notes and learning materials to hopefully make sitting your Chemistry A-Levels a little bit easier and stress-free.

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Metallic Bonding

Key Information & Summary Metallic bonding joins a bulk of metal atoms. Valence electrons are responsible for the metallic bond. Valence electrons can move from one atom to another creating a cloud of delocalized electrons. The positive metal ions are immersed in this cloud. Electrostatic interactions are responsible for the metallic bond. Metal bond determines ...

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Mass Spectra and IR

Key Information & Summary Mass spectrometry is based on the possibility of separating a mixture of ions as a function of their mass/charge ratio. The fragmentation pattern depends on the chemical structure and is typical for every molecule. The molecular structure can be determined by taking as reference the molecular ion and then analyzing the ...

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Intermolecular Forces

Key Information & Summary Intermolecular bonds are weak electrostatic interactions between neutral molecules and ions. Polarizability is the ability to form instantaneous dipoles. The London forces (also known as dispersion forces or instantaneous dipole-induced dipole forces) identify all those forces due to instant multipoles. The Debye Forces are intermolecular forces resulting from the interaction of ...

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Halogenoalkanes

Key Information & Summary The halogenoalkanes (or alkyl halides) are a group of organic compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens. Halogenoalkanes can be classified according to their structure. A name is given considering the connectivity of the carbon atom to which the halogen is attached. They are colourless, relatively odourless, and hydrophobic. ...

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Aldehydes and Ketones

Key Information & Summary The aldehydes are organic compounds that have a formyl group, indicated by -CHO. They can be described by the general formula CnH2n Ketones are organic compounds of general formula R-CO-R', characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group C = O. Primary alcohols, in general, can be easily oxidized by a ...

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Covalent Bonding

Key Information & Summary A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. Covalent bonding occurs when the electronegativity difference between elements (atoms) is zero or relatively small. Bonds form if there is an overlap of two atomic orbitals. The covalent bonds in a polyatomic ion can be represented ...

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Spectroscopy

Key Facts & Summary: Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. The electromagnetic wave can be characterized by its frequency of oscillation or its wavelength. When a molecule is exposed to electromagnetic radiation, it may absorb a photon. Spectrometers are instruments designed for ...

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Polymers and Polyamides

Key Facts & Summary: Polymers are molecules whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, the monomers. Protein and carbohydrate are an example of polymers. The molecular weight of a polymer depends on the number of repeated units. It is usually a range. The melting temperature also increase with the increasing molecular weight. The chemical ...

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